c. Motion Picture Association of America
"Red Dawn" was the first movie to carry the PG-13 rating when it debuted in theaters on Aug. 10, 1984.
The MPAA is a trade organization that represents the interests of the major Hollywood movie studios. Its ratings division reviews 800 to 900 movies every year. Usually, fewer than a dozen of those ratings are appealed, and only about a third of those appeals succeed in getting a rating changed.